ERIC Number: ED229618
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1982-Sep
The Female-Male Earnings Gap: A Review of Employment and Earnings Issues. Report 673.
Norwood, Janet L.
In the last 20 years, an increase in the number of working women has been accompanied by changes in the female labor force and in the concentration of women in particular occupations and industries. These changes have a profound effect upon women's earnings. The Current Population Survey (CPS) shows a wide disparity in the median earnings of women and men. More education usually translates to higher annual earnings, but at every level of educational achievement women's median earnings lag far behind men's. The 60-percent ratio in the national aggregate data shows a female-male wage gap or differential of almost 40 percent. Research has indicated that worker characteristics account for 44 percent of the female-male earnings gap and that the gap is reduced as more economic and demographic factors are introduced into the analysis. Working women are concentrated in generally low-paying occupations in low-paying industries where they earn less than male co-workers. Women's median earnings in the high-paying wage and salary occupations are also substantially less. Available data suggest that differences in female-male earnings stem more from differences in occupational employment than from differences in earnings for the same job. (Eight tables are appended.) (YLB)
Publication Type: Information Analyses
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.