ERIC Number: ED229367
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1982-Apr
Effects of Achievement Tendencies and Competitive Outcomes on Performance.
Grove, J. Robert; Pargman, David
A study examined cognitive and behavioral consequences of continuous success or failure in a competitive situation involving 40 undergraduate males. Three performance variables were selected for examination: expectancies for success, amount of self-motivated practice, and performance quality. Subjects were informed that they would be competing against another student in a best-three-out-of-five dart tossing contest. For each competitive trial, the subject estimated his chances of outscoring his opponent by marking a 17-point expectancy scale. Competitors were given a 5-minute practice period to be used at their own discretion. The number of throws made was recorded unobtrusively. Subjects then made a set of five throws at a target located on the floor 5 feet away, using the non-preferred hand. Fictitious feedback that the individual had either defeated or lost to his opponent on that trial was administered. Subjects were then asked to rate the importance of six factors in determining whether they won or lost: (a) task difficulty; (b) natural ability; (c) opponent's natural ability; (d) effort; (e) opponent's effort; and (f) luck. Results provided evidence for both cognitive and behavioral consequences as a result of consistent competitive outcomes. In general, the data suggested a motivational decrement with repeated success in such situations. (JM)
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance (Houston, TX, April 1982).