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ERIC Number: ED228885
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1983
Pages: 18
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: 0
Neu, Joyce
Various kinds of negotiations that may be used to teach interactional skills in the advanced English as a second language (ESL) classroom are discussed, and examples of materials are included. Seven distinctive features of negotiations are as follows: (1) there must be a minimum of two parties present at the interaction; (2) each party must have certain expectations and/or demands; (3) these demands or objectives cannot be shared; (4) the parties are willing to modify their positions; (5) there must be a degree of involvement present in the negotiators such that modification of positions becomes difficult; (6) the process must conclude or have an outcome; and (7) the parties believe that the outcome will be satisfactory. Language is an additional feature when two parties from different cultures and language backgrounds negotiate. The purposes and goals of negotiations are also variable from culture to culture. The four stages of negotiations are the opening, exchange, change, and closing. Examples are presented of negotiations that highlight not only the functions of the various stages of negotiations, but also some of the strategies that native English speakers use in negotiating. Attention is also directed to teaching negotiating styles and interactional strategies to ESL students. The strategies include topic initiation and maintenance, yielding the floor, refusing to yield the floor, interrupting, and pausing. The format of the classroom is briefly discussed, and the game, "Nuclear Energy for TOGO" is presented. (SW)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers; Guides - Classroom - Teacher
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Convention of Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (Toronto, Ontario, March 15-20, 1983).