ERIC Number: ED228549
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1982-Aug
Reference Count: 0
Integration of Formal, Nonformal and Informal Support Systems.
This paper presents a comprehensive three-dimensional view of counseling which incorporates nonformal and informal counseling modes. Several specific issues in cross-cultural counseling are cited and the distinction between the process of counseling and its functions is discussed. Case examples of the use of nonformal and informal counseling modes from Micronesia, Loas, and Samoa are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of clients' natural support systems which the counselor can use in combination with, or instead of, more traditional techniques. A three-by-three matrix of counseling services is presented which uses the three dimensions of counseling, i.e., formal, nonformal, and informal, in an interactive system of the place where the counseling occurs and the methods by which counseling is provided. A simulated role play of a counseling interaction between an Hmong refugee who had lost his traditional network of social support and an interpreter/teacher who implements the three dimensional model is presented. Implications of the use of the three dimensional model are discussed. (JAC)
Publication Type: Reports - General; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association (90th, Washington, DC, August 23-27, 1982).