ERIC Number: ED227465
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1981-Jan
Reference Count: N/A
Understanding Mnemonic Imagery Effects: A Dozen "Obvious" Outcomes.
Levin, Joel R.; Pressley, Michael
Using Atkinson's Keyword Method--an imagery mnemonic for vocabulary learning--as a vehicle, this paper argues that even the most well-reasoned and explainable psychological outcomes need to be validated empirically. The paper provides 12 examples of applications of the keyword method in which an eminently reasonable cognitive outcome was anticipated and yet, under experimental scrutiny, some other equally reasonable cognitive outcome materialized. The 12 examples presented are (1) vocabulary word recall, (2) provided versus generated pictures, (3) nonkeyword pictures versus keyword pictures, (4) provided versus generated keywords, (5) ideal versus representative materials, (6) modality by materials interactions, (7) keyword method by ability interactions, (8) the keyword method versus other methods, (9) vocabulary comprehension and usage, (10) strategy maintenance and generalization, (11) group administered keyword instruction, and (12) fictionally versus factually effective mnemonics. The paper concludes that empirical validation should be a foremost concern among those who offer prescriptions for the improvement of educational products and processes. (FL)
Publication Type: Information Analyses
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: National Inst. of Education (ED), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Research and Development Center for Individualized Schooling.