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ERIC Number: ED227419
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1982-Aug-27
Pages: 13
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: 0
What Is Self-Esteem and How Can It Be Measured?
Epstein, Seymour
A major assumption in personality theory is that the human mind tends to organize experience into conceptual systems. An individual's overall theory of reality includes both self-theory and world-theory. One of the basic postulates in an individual's self-theory is an overall assessment of self-esteem, which becomes the most important influence on his/her pleasure/pain balance. As a higher order postulate, self-esteem is resistant to change. Direct self-assessment of self-esteem, using self-report techniques, appears to be of considerable value in allowing the acquisition of considerable information relatively easily. A major disadvantage is that people cannot be expected to be in direct contact with their preconscious level of self-esteem and often become defensive. A major task, then, is the development of self-esteem scale items that are uninfluenced by defensiveness. Other approaches to measuring self-esteem that are free of the influence of defensiveness include behavioral measures and ratings by others. Self-esteem, when viewed as a basic construct in an individual's implicit conceptual system of self, is of such fundamental importance in understanding human behavior that it warrants a great deal of creative effort in establishing better ways to measure it. (JAC)
Publication Type: Information Analyses; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association (90th, Washington, DC, August 23-27, 1982).