ERIC Number: ED226704
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1982-Jul
Reference Count: N/A
Processing With and Without Long-Term Memory Modification: Attention, Level of Processing and Word Frequency.
Schneider, Walter; Fisk, Arthur D.
The automatic/controlled processing theory proposal that the modification of long term memory (LTM) occurs only during controlled processing, and that stimuli can be automatically processed with no resulting LTM effect was tested in two experiments. In the first experiment, subjects were shown words while performing tasks involving either intentional learning, semantic or graphic categorization, or a distracting digit search while trying either to remember or ignore simultaneously presented words. In the distracting digit search conditions, frequency judgments of words were at or near chance. Distractor learning for the semantic and intentional conditions was better than for graphic orienting, which was better than chance. In the second experiment, subjects were trained for approximately 5000 trials to develop an automatic categorization response. Subjects then categorized distractor words as not being vehicle words 1 to 20 times and performed a frequency judgment and forced-choice recognition test. Results showed no evidence of a frequency estimation ability and little recognition memory for words semantically categorized 20 times. Results support the hypothesis of a close connection between controlled processing and LTM storage and suggest a reinterpretation of the Hasher and Zacks (1979) "automatic encoding concept." (Author/LMM)
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Office of Naval Research, Washington, DC. Personnel and Training Branch.
Authoring Institution: Illinois Univ., Champaign.