ERIC Number: ED226501
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1982
Reference Count: N/A
Adequate Schooling for American Children and Youth.
Whigham, E. L.; Magann, E. P.
Without advancing a specific plan for reforming American schooling, this document identifies a number of conditions that must be met for education to be considered adequate. The paper defines an adequate education as one that achieves the social and individual purposes to which it has been addressed. The effects of politics and decentralization on American education make coming to consensus on these purposes difficult, but some major goals are discerned. Once consensus on purposes is reached, agreement on specific but flexible programs and their objectives must be obtained, for it is by the achievement of these objectives that adequacy can be judged. After describing several generally agreed-on programs, the paper notes and discusses five factors that must be present for the achievement of program objectives: sufficient resources, effective state and local leadership, competent teachers, educational evaluation and research, and a supportive cultural environment. The need for national leadership is treated next, and some organizations through which such leadership might be exerted are reviewed. The costs of an adequate education are considered in the paper's final section, along with methods for financing these costs. The authors conclude with a general overview of the implications of their arguments for educational policy. (PGD)
Descriptors: Costs, Definitions, Educational Change, Educational Finance, Educational Improvement, Educational Objectives, Educational Policy, Educational Research, Elementary Secondary Education, Government Role, Leadership Qualities, Performance Factors, Policy Formation, Research Utilization, Teacher Effectiveness
Not available separately; see EA 015 442.
Publication Type: Opinion Papers
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: N/A