ERIC Number: ED223008
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1982-Sep
Considering the Research: What Makes an Effective School?
Westbrook, John D.
Four general types of literature related to school effectiveness are reviewed in this paper and the more consistent research findings synthesized. The literature types considered are case studies (descriptions of effective schools), comparative studies (comparisons of effective and ineffective schools), program evaluations (examinations of effectiveness-oriented programs), and reviews of the school effectiveness literature. The literature is divided into three groups for coherent synthesis: group 1 consists of five case studies and a review of the literature, all of seminal significance and frequently cited; group 2 includes studies and reviews that address further the issues raised in the studies in the first group; and group 3 studies do not utilize measures of student achievement and are the least frequently cited. The synthesis of this literature begins with consideration of definitions and concepts of school effectiveness and of qualifications limiting the applicability of the research findings. The review then discusses the major factors affecting school effectiveness as identified in the research, including time on task, expectations for student achievement, student success rates, curriculum alignment, staff task orientation, behavior management techniques, school environment, staff cooperation, instructional leadership, parent participation, and instructional practices. A bibliography lists the 107 documents reviewed. (Author/PGD)
Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Administrator Role, Classroom Techniques, Educational Environment, Educational Research, Elementary Secondary Education, Institutional Characteristics, School Effectiveness, Student Behavior, Student Role, Student School Relationship, Teacher Behavior, Teacher Role, Teaching Methods
Publication Type: Information Analyses; Reference Materials - Bibliographies
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: National Inst. of Education (ED), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: Southwest Educational Development Lab., Austin, TX.