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ERIC Number: ED221852
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1982-Mar
Pages: 15
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
Putting Reading in Context: Pre- and Postreading Strategies for Improving Comprehension.
Shenkman, Harriet
Prereading teaching strategies that help students connect schemata in their head with the information on the page are important components of reading instruction. Three prereading strategies that serve the purpose of stimulating linking activity are posing related questions, presenting reaction statements, and introducing concept stimuli. Related questions attempt to draw upon the experiences of the readers and to activate in their heads those schemata into which the major ideas in a reading selection may be integrated. Reaction statements are provocative statements related to the major concepts in the reading material that may be written on the chalkboard before the selection is read. By using stimulus association, the teacher provides a stimulus word or phrase which is chosen to reflect a major concept in the reading selection. Students are then asked to think of as many associations as they can. Moving students toward independence can be accomplished by showing them how to use the text itself to generate prior knowledge. By showing students how to integrate new information into existing schemata, teachers can help them become aware of the cognitive processes involved in reading. If there are no schemata relevant to the concepts in the text existing in the reader's head, then comprehension is impossible, and it should be concluded that the reading material is inappropriate for that particular reader. Or, content area teachers can help students construct a new schema through semantic mapping. The student who has established a relevant schema has some basis for linking new input with prior knowledge. (HOD)
Publication Type: Guides - Classroom - Teacher; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A