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ERIC Number: ED221540
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1982-Feb
Pages: 43
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: 0
Implementing Educational Change: Progress at Last.
Fullan, Michael
In an examination of the implementation of educational change, a discussion is presented on the purpose, meaning, and context of change. Consideration is given to the value of change, its benefits and feasibility, and the capacity for implementation. In the second section of the paper, 14 factors related to the implementation of change in schools are summarized, and corresponding research on these factors is cited. In discussing the characteristics of the change itself, the factors of need, clarity, complexity, quality, and practicality are examined. Six factors influencing the characteristics of change at the school district level are discussed: (1) the district's history of innovative attempts; (2) the adoption process; (3) district administrative support; (4) staff development and participation; (5) time-line and information systems; and (6) community characteristics. In discussing the school level factors relating to change, the role of the principal, teacher-teacher relationships, and teacher characteristics and orientations are singled out as factors for consideration. The last set of factors are considered under the label of assistance external to the school district. Six types of outcomes of change are identified: (1) degree of organizational change; (2) scope of implementation; (3) incorporation of the product; (4) incorporation of a problem-solving process; (5) problem resolution; and (6) personal impacts. The final section of the paper addresses implications, unresolved issues, and the question of deriving practical lessons for integrating the theory and practice of educational change. (JD)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers; Information Analyses
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: National Inst. of Education (ED), Washington, DC. Teaching and Learning Program.
Note: Paper presented at the National Invitational Conference, "Research on Teaching: Implications for Practice" (Warrenton, Va, February 25-27, 1982). For related documents, see SP 021 097-107 and ED 218 257.