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ERIC Number: ED221538
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1982-Feb
Pages: 40
Abstractor: N/A
Teaching Functions in Instructional Programs.
Rosenshine, Barak
Successful experimental programs, in which teachers have been trained to increase their students' academic achievement, were analyzed to identify common teacher functions. Six recent studies in which teachers implemented training and in which students had higher achievement were examined. Conclusions drawn from the analysis include: (1) Students taught with structured curricula do better than those taught with individualized or discovery learning approaches; and (2) Students who received their instruction directly from the teacher achieved more than those expected to learn new material or skills on their own or from each other. A list of specific teaching functions that promote learning was developed from this study: (1) daily reviewing, checking previous day's work, reteaching if necessary, and checking homework; (2) providing overviews in new content/skills, proceeding in small steps (but at a rapid pace if necessary), giving detailed or redundant instructions and explanations, and phasing in new skills while old skills are being mastered; (3) high frequency of questions and overt student practice, prompting during initial learning, and feedback allowing student response; (4) giving feedback and correctives, recyling instruction if necessary, and making corrections by simplifying questions, giving clues, explaining, and reviewing; (5) providing time for independent practice and seatwork until students are sure of material; and (6) providing weekly and monthly reviews and reteaching if necessary. (JD)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers; Reports - Descriptive; Information Analyses
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: National Inst. of Education (ED), Washington, DC. Teaching and Learning Program.
Note: Paper presented at the National Invitational Conference, "Research on Teaching: Implications for Practice" (Warrenton, VA, February 25-27, 1982). For related documents, see SP 021 097-107 and ED 218 257.