ERIC Number: ED221534
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1982-Jun
Reference Count: 0
Effective Schools--A Review.
Purkey, Stewart C.; Smith, Marshall S.
A review of school effectiveness literature is presented in this paper. Research studies and other literature on this topic are examined, including case studies, surveys and evaluations, studies of program implementations, and organizational theories of schools and other institutions. Emphasis is given to organizational theories and findings concerning small organizations and program implementation, which suggest ways of approaching and understanding efforts to change schools. Attention is also given to identifiable characteristics of schools and school personnel and the way that schools actually operate and change. Effective schools are seen to be characterized by order, structure, purposefulness, a humane atmosphere, and the use of appropriate instructional techniques. It is noted that what appears to be lacking from the literature are suggestions on how to develop these characteristics in the schools. A different approach to school improvement is offered, involving the concept of a school cultural perspective in which schools are viewed as dynamic social systems made up of interrelated factors. In a portrait of an effective school, a description is given of the sustaining characteristics of such a school, including collaborative planning and collegial relationships, sense of community, clear goals and high expectations commonly shared, and order and discipline. A proposed strategy for change is outlined. (JD)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers; Information Analyses
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: National Inst. of Education (ED), Washington, DC. Teaching and Learning Program.
Authoring Institution: Wisconsin Center for Education Research, Madison.
Note: Paper presented at the National Invitational Conference, "Research on Teaching: Implications for Practice" (Warrenton, VA, February 25-27, 1982). For related documents, see SP 021 097-107 and ED 218 257.