ERIC Number: ED221437
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1982-Jun
Reference Count: N/A
The Development of Secondary Education in Japan after World War II.
Okuda, Shinjo; Hishimura, Yukihiko
Under Allied influence following World War II, the Japanese educational system was reorganized on a 6-3-3 basis, with the first 9 years compulsory. The lower secondary curriculum established in 1947 included many compulsory subjects--Japanese, Social Studies, Mathematics, Science, Music, Drawing and Fine Arts, Physical Education, and Vocational Education--leaving little time for elective subjects. At both lower and upper secondary levels, moral education has been increasingly stressed, and periodic revisions have given increasing latitude to individual schools, encouraging greater emphasis on the needs of individual students. The report says little about the content of the upper secondary curriculum, but notes the current debate--despite the fact that the proportion of students going on to upper secondary schools has increased to 94 percent--over whether upper secondary school should be compulsory. Such a move would create problems, including formation of policy with respect to the 30 percent of upper secondary students who attend private schools. Although some school policies encouraged by the postwar occupation forces have not lasted, including formation of local school districts and institution of comprehensive upper secondary schools, much has remained, including educational equality for women. (IM)
Descriptors: Attendance, Coeducation, Comparative Education, Compulsory Education, Curriculum Development, Educational Change, Educational Development, Educational History, Elective Courses, Foreign Countries, Individualized Education Programs, School Districts, Secondary Education, Social Studies, Vocational Education
Publication Type: Opinion Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: National Inst. for Educational Research, Tokyo (Japan).
Identifiers - Location: Japan