ERIC Number: ED220352
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1982-Jun
Reference Count: 0
Democratic Schooling and Citizenship Education: What Does the Research Reveal?
Hepburn, Mary A.
This paper examines four major research studies spanning approximately 45 years which provide solid evidence that democratic schooling is possible and is an extremely important factor in the education of young citizens for a democratic society. The objectives, methodology, limitations, and results of each study are examined. From the studies, the author draws insight into the construct "democratic school" and perspectives on the attributes of democratic schooling. In the first study reviewed, Lewin, Lippitt, and White (1938-1939) assessed the comparative effects on student group behavior of three types of classroom climates generated by three differing leadership styles--democratic, autocratic, and laissez faire. Results showed that students who experienced democratic leadership were more effective in accomplishing their social goals and work goals. In the second study examined, Halpin and Croft (1963) obtained descriptive data on differing types of school climate and the human relations associated with each type by studying the behaviors, perceptions, and attitudes of teachers and principals. From this study we obtain an image of a democratic school which by its very organizational structure has a kind of democratic personality. In the third study (1974-1975), Ehman and Gillespie collected questionnaire data from high school students concerning their political attitudes and school characteristics. The study results provide a vision of a school that is a democratic system. The fourth and last study (1978) reviewed school violence and school climate. From this"Safe School Study" school policies which will create an environment that minimizes student frustration and aggression and maximizes identity with the school are envisioned. (RM)
Descriptors: Citizenship Education, Democratic Values, Educational Environment, Educational Research, Elementary Secondary Education, Human Relations, Institutional Characteristics, Leadership Styles, Literature Reviews, Political Attitudes, Political Socialization, Student Attitudes, Teaching Styles, Violence
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Speeches/Meeting Papers; Information Analyses
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Social Science Education Consortium (East Lansing, MI, June 3-5, 1982).