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ERIC Number: ED219799
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1981
Pages: 63
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: 0
A Combined Behavioral-Cognitive Orientation to an Instructional Design on Writing.
Reed, W. Michael
To explain how writing is both cognitive and behavioral, this paper compares and contrasts behavioral and cognitive orientations within an instructional design. The first section addresses the weaknesses and strengths of a behavioral versus a cognitive orientation and relates them to Janet Emig's 1971 study, "The Composing Processes of Twelfth Graders." The second section, in a defense of behavioral orientation, contrasts a Skinnerian model with a Pavlovian model and looks at three disparities between the two models. The seven principles of Skinner-Box learning are then applied to writing. The next section applies the variables of the cognitive theory to writing. This is followed by an examination of the cognitive connection between the writer and the reader. The next section addresses the integration of learning theories into seven components of the instructional design: (1) conducting needs assessment and identifying/prioritizing instructional goals, (2) performing learning outcome analysis, (3) describing student entry behaviors, (4) grouping and sequencing learning objectives, (5) designing delivery systems, (6) designing or selecting learning activities, and (7) reinforcement. The section that follows considers a behavioral orientation to writing, a cognitive orientation to writing, and a combination of the two throughout the components of the instructional design. The paper concludes with a note on the affective domain. (HOD)
Publication Type: Opinion Papers; Guides - Classroom - Teacher
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A