ERIC Number: ED218728
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1981
School Desegregation: Past and Present.
Hillman, Larry W.
This paper provides a review of the history of school desegregation efforts in the courts from the middle of the nineteenth century to the present. Early cases at both state and federal levels sanctioned the notion of "separate but equal" education. During the first half of the twentieth century the Supreme Court held that the existence of separate but equal higher education facilities did not ensure plaintiffs equal educational opportunities. In the 1954 Brown decision the Supreme Court found segregation unconstitutional and ordered dismantling of dual school systems "with all deliberate speed." Attempts by southern states to delay desegregation brought a second round of federal action, and in 1964 the federal government passed the Civil Rights Act. In northern states, desegregation efforts focused on distinctions between de facto and de jure segregation and on attempts to include suburban areas in urban desegregation planning. The acceptability of the magnet school as a desegregation tool has not yet been decided. The paper concludes with brief analyses of the efforts of the Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson, Nixon, Carter, and Reagan administrations to further school desegregation. (Author/PGD)
Descriptors: Black History, Civil Rights, Desegregation Litigation, Educational History, Elementary Secondary Education, Equal Education, Federal Government, Federal Legislation, Higher Education, Magnet Schools, Presidents of the United States, Racial Segregation, Regional Attitudes, School Desegregation, Social History
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers; Legal/Legislative/Regulatory Materials; Historical Materials
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Los Angeles, CA, April 13-17, 1981).