ERIC Number: ED218595
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1982-Jul
Reference Count: N/A
Structures for Explanations in History Textbooks or So What If Governor Stanford Missed the Spike and Hit the Rail? Technical Report No. 252.
Armbruster, Bonnie B.; Anderson, Thomas H.
Theory and research in reading comprehension have confirmed the important role of text structure in learning from written materials. The previous work with story grammars provided the basis of this attempt to define frames for explanations in history that would be likely to aid learning. A suggested goal frame includes the goals, plan, action, and outcome that are assumed to constitute the "main ideas" associated with the explanation of a historical event. The goal frame can be used for most interpretations or philosophies of history, since historical events must ultimately be explained in psychological terms, with human beings as the agents of change. The goal is the desired state sought by the main character, the plan is the cognitive strategy for attaining the goal, the action is overt behavior in response to the plan, and the outcome is the consequence of the action, which may either satisfy or fail to satisfy the goal. A variation of the goal frame gives rise to a new frame, the problem/solution frame. The problem is an event, a condition, or a series of events or conditions resulting in a state that is an obstacle to the attainment of the goal. The problem prompts a solution that takes the form of the plan, action, and outcome of the goal frame. The outcome of the solution either solves or fails to solve the problem. Suggestions are made for using the frames as tools in evaluating historical explanations in textbooks, writing historical explanations, and teaching historical explanations. (HOD)
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Opinion Papers; Information Analyses
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: National Inst. of Education (ED), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: Illinois Univ., Urbana. Center for the Study of Reading.; Bolt, Beranek and Newman, Inc., Cambridge, MA.