ERIC Number: ED218267
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1982-Feb
Reference Count: 0
Developmental Supervision: Reducing Teacher Stress at Different Career Stages.
Burden, Paul R.
Teachers have different job skills, knowledge, behaviors, attitudes, and concerns at different points in their careers. A number of these characteristics follow a regular developmental pattern. Three stages of teacher career development have been identified, with different developmental characteristics at each stage. In the survival stage, which occurs during the first year of teaching, the major concern of the teacher is meeting professional responsibilities and adjusting to the school environment. The second, third, and fourth years of teaching are years of adjustment, growth in classroom techniques, and increasing confidence. At the mature stage, from the fifth year on, most teachers feel professionally secure. School administrators can help teachers meet the stresses in each of these developmental stages in many ways. The confusion and uncertainty of the first stage can be allayed by direct supervisory assistance, with the supervisor assuming primary responsibility in helping the teacher. A collaborative supervisory approach is appropriate at the adjustment stage, with the supervisor and teacher taking equal responsibility for meeting the teacher's needs. Stress which teachers experience in the mature stage of teaching appears to center on the teachers' ability to keep teaching interesting for themselves and to meet changing educational expectations. A nondirective supervisory approach is appropriate at this stage. The supervisor listens, encourages, clarifies, presents, and helps to solve problems, while the teacher assumes the primary responsibility for improving instruction through self assessment. (JD)
Descriptors: Administrator Responsibility, Attitude Change, Beginning Teachers, Developmental Stages, Helping Relationship, Professional Development, Self Concept, Self Evaluation (Individuals), Stress Variables, Teacher Administrator Relationship, Teacher Attitudes, Teacher Characteristics, Teacher Supervision, Teaching Experience, Vocational Maturity
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers; Opinion Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association of Teacher Educators (Phoenix, AZ, February 15, 1982).