ERIC Number: ED218151
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1982-Jan
Reference Count: N/A
Effects of Individual Differences, Processing Instructions, and Outline and Heading Characteristics on Learning from Introductory Science Text. Section 2: The Effects of Author-Provided Headings on Text Processing. Final Report.
Dansereau, Donald F.
Effects of embedded (appropriately positioned within text) and intact (outline format) headings on the processing of ecological and geological text material were examined in two separate studies. Suggesting that outlines may provide readers with global information about a passage and that embedded headings may aid in discovering relationships between global information presented in headings (outline) and detailed information in a passage, psychology students (N=132) were assigned to groups comparing effects of: outlines/headings, outlines only, headings only, and control (no outlines/headings). Results indicated that embedded headings improved delayed test performance. The second study focused on instructions for input (tying headings to text material) and output (using headings as cuing devices for recalling text) processing. It was found that psychology students (N=106) assigned to groups using headings/instructions outperformed groups using headings without instructions or no headings/instructions. A discrepancy was observed between the two experiments in that the presentation of headings without instructions failed to significantly increase test scores on dependent measures (essay, outline, multiple-choice) in the second study; sensitization to headings was proposed as one possible explanation. It was also found in the second study that field-independent individuals consistently outperformed field-dependent individuals on dependent measures. (Author/JN)
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: National Inst. of Education (ED), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: Texas Christian Univ., Fort Worth.