ERIC Number: ED218003
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1982-Apr
Reference Count: N/A
Listener Processing and Speaker Production of Redundant Messages.
Hoemann, Harry W.; And Others
The first phase of this study focused on the effects of message redundancy on communication accuracy of listeners in kindergarten, second, and fifth grades under memory and stimulus-visible conditions. Three nearly identical line drawings, each containing a large number of items in common and at least one distinctive feature, were presented on index cards in 12 different experimental trials at three levels of redundancy. Subjects were instructed to choose the pictures designated by the examiner's message. Half the subjects heard the messages while the pictures were not visible; others could inspect the array while the message was spoken. The second phase of the study was conducted in a similar manner, but included a speaking task requiring subjects to evaluate the examiner's redundant messages, revise them, and explain their revisions. Coaching and reinforcement for brevity were provided midway in the second trial sequence. Listeners in the first phase showed main effects for age and memory with no interaction. Speakers in the second phase produced redundant, informative messages. Coaching facilitated brevity only when memory was a factor. Subjects judged redundant messages to be "easy" and were fairly successful in choosing the target referent. (Author/RH)
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: National Inst. of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke (NIH), Bethesda, MD.
Authoring Institution: N/A