ERIC Number: ED217378
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1982-Jun
Reference Count: N/A
From Turn-Taking to Sense-Making: Classroom Factors and Improved Reading Achievement.
Duffy, Gerald G.
Classroom studies indicate that turn-taking--when a teacher asks a question or assigns a reading turn, the child responds, and the teacher reinforces or corrects--is the format of most school lessons. The problem with this format is that it emphasizes pupil response without providing for teacher explanation and the other forms of substantive verbal assistance. This absence of teacher explanation leads to instructional inequity, focuses on answers rather than on process, and masks the teacher's explanatory role in instruction. The turn-taking model can be modified so that teachers provide deductive or inductive explanations at the outset of the lesson and then conduct turn-taking. Including such explanations provides students with specific assistance regarding problem solving strategies. Qualitative studies reveal that effective teacher explanation includes explicit information on what is being taught and why it is important, and clearly tells students how to do the task. In addition, effective explanation requires that teachers talk more and monitor student cognitive processing as they restructure their explanations, providing appropriate elaboration as needed. Finally, good explanation provides cohesion across lessons. Turn-taking is difficult to modify because it is a tradition in American schools, one that appears to work and to ease the problems of classroom management. However, providing explanations is a crucial part of the teacher's instructional effort, and is essential if all pupils are to view reading as a sense-making rather than a mechanical process. (HTH)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers; Guides - Classroom - Teacher; Opinion Papers
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: National Inst. of Education (ED), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Inst. for Research on Teaching.