ERIC Number: ED214930
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1982-Jan
Reference Count: 0
Academic Engaged Time and Its Relationship to Learning: A Review of the Literature.
Graden, Janet; And Others
Studies of how children spend their time in school, how teachers' perceptions and student characteristics affect interactions and the use of time in classrooms, and how the concept of time relates to student achievement were reviewed in preparation for an investigation of the extent to which different groups of children have different learning opportunities. The intent was to build a data base to be used in relation to current practices of referring, assessing, and placing students of different learning chracteristics. Two areas of relevant research are reported: studies of time in relation to achievement and studies of teacher student interaction and student response as dependent on varying teacher expectations and student characteristics. The research on instructional time is discussed in five categories: (1) quantity of schooling, or time in the school day; (2) teacher reports of opportunity to learn; (3) teacher reports of allocated time; (4) direct observation of allocated tme; and (5) student engaged time. A conclusion reviews the results of the literature survey and is followed by a list of references. (Authors/JD)
Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Conceptual Tempo, Elementary Secondary Education, Expectation, Interaction Process Analysis, Learning Disabilities, Research Methodology, Student Characteristics, Student Placement, Student Teacher Relationship, Teacher Attitudes, Time Factors (Learning), Time on Task
Publication Type: Information Analyses
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Office of Special Education (ED), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Inst. for Research on Learning Disabilities.