ERIC Number: ED213815
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1982
Reference Count: 0
Tokenism and Organizational Change: Theoretical Examination of an Aspect of Race Relations in Educational Context.
Phillips, William N., Jr.; Blumberg, Rhoda L.
This paper discusses various concepts of tokenism and argues that tokenism is a technique used by the dominant group to resist minority group pressures for change. Reasons for social scientists' neglect of tokenism are given, and those conceptualizations which do appear in the literature are examined. Tokenism is described as a strategy to diffuse conflict and/or coopt potential minority leaders, and a token figure may be employed to manage the impossible or to be blamed for failure. The dilemmas of the token role are presented as it affects both the token and the members of his respective group. Using the university as an illustrative source, the paper also characterizes the major aspects of the token role as a basis for further research and analyses. (Author/JCD)
Publication Type: Information Analyses; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (New York, NY, 1982).