ERIC Number: ED209434
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1981
Reference Count: 0
What To Do When the Pyramid Crumbles: The Path from XA to YB Leadership.
Schambier, Robert F.
Teachers are alienated and dissatisfied with their jobs and often "burn out" because they must work in a bureaucratic structure in which all or most decisions are made by administrators and are expected to be carried out by the professionals, rather than being made by the professionals or in collaboration. This pyramidal structure or organization is based on assumptions about human nature characterized by Douglas MacGregor as Theory X--that is, that humans are lazy, will only do what profits them, and must be forced to work and be closely supervised. In contrast to Theory X is Theory Y, in which humans are seen as having a need for work, to pursue excellence, and to "self-actualize," as Maslow called it. Most organizational researchers today contend that the era of effective Theory X management has passed and should be replaced by a Theory Y-style characterized by an organizational structure flatter than the pyramid, in which cooperation prevails and authority and responsibility are shared among administrators and professionals. Moving toward such a structure would help to solve some of the problems of teacher alienation today. Steps toward more participatory organizational management of schools include the followinq: (1) development of participative/supportive leadership processes; (2) concern for genuine motivational forces; (3) improved communications; (4) better interaction-influence processes; (5) improved decison-making processes; (6) mutual goal-setting or -ordering processes; and (7) improved control processes, considering individuals and their goals. Public school education will be improved if the hierarchical pyramid crumbles and is replaced by a new symbiosis of professionals and administrators working for conjoined system and individual goals. (KC)
Descriptors: Administrative Change, Administrative Policy, Administrative Principles, Adult Education, Decision Making, Educational Administration, Educational Cooperation, Educational Policy, Educational Practices, Elementary Secondary Education, Higher Education, Organizational Effectiveness, Organizational Theories, Personnel Management, Policy Formation, School Administration, Self Actualization, Staff Utilization, Supervision, Teacher Alienation, Teacher Burnout, Teacher Morale, Teacher Motivation, Teacher Role, Teacher Supervision, Teaching Conditions
Publication Type: Opinion Papers; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the National Adult Education Conference (Anaheim, CA, October 29, 1981).