ERIC Number: ED209211
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1981-Apr
Reference Count: 0
Levels of Organization in the Structure of Awareness of Sport.
Kahn, William; Laird, James D.
The relationship between athletic awareness and amount of exposure to sports is examined. Levels of organization theory assumes that a single situation can be experienced at different levels and that a given level cannot be mastered until competence has been achieved at the preceding lower level. For this study, it was hypothesized that basketball players with greater experience and skill would perceive their sport more accurately and at higher levels of organization than those with less experience. The subjects were 48 male undergraduates who had varying amounts of experience with organized basketball. They were shown a videotape of a basketball game without sound and asked to respond to a 57-item questionnaire divided into questions concerning four levels of organization. Questions at the first level concerned form and technique, while those at the second level dealt with positioning or shot selection. Third level questions asked about individual plays and types of offenses and defenses, and questions at the fourth level dealt with manipulation and aspects of strategy. Answers were scored on two dimensions: whether they were correct, and the level to which the answers corresponded. As expected, differences in athletic awareness varied directly with the subject's exposure to basketball, supporting the general levels of organization theory. Another supporting factor was that the subjects in the lower three skill levels did not score highest at the most fundamental level, but at the next level above that, which is consistent with developmental research. The results suggest that a major component of skill lies in "knowing the game," and that highly skilled individuals see a different game than do their less experienced counterparts. (FG)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at a Meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association (New York, NY, April, 1981).