ERIC Number: ED208961
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1974-Aug
Reference Count: N/A
The Identification and Teaching of Selected Temporal Constructions to Young Children.
Ritter, Joyce Helen
This study examines children's understanding of temporal markers and explores a strategy for teaching such understanding when it is absent. The original sample for this study consisted of 22 first graders and 85 kindergarten children. All subjects were individually pretested with the Temporal Marker Test (TMT) which evaluates performance on eight constructions under non-cued and phrasal cued conditions. Since the first grade subjects and 41 of the kindergarteners averaged over 75 per cent correct responses on the TMT the remainder of the study continued with 44 of the kindergarten children only. These children were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. Subjects in the experimental group who had missed three or more responses out of four for a specific construction on the TMT received a specific lesson (or lessons) in the temporal concept(s) they needed to learn. During a lesson, each subject received phrasal cuing, pausal emphasis on the temporal marker, immediate right or wrong feedback on his or her responses, and instructions to repeat the sentences after the experimenter until he or she reached criterion level -- i.e., displaying the correct response twice for each construction. In general, results indicated that although the experimental group out-performed the control group in all eight constructions of the TMT Posttest, most of the kindergarten children did not understand the use of temporal markers in different syntactic formats. (Author/MP)
Descriptors: Age Differences, Comprehension, Concept Teaching, Difficulty Level, Error Analysis (Language), Form Classes (Languages), Identification, Kindergarten Children, Learning, Phrase Structure, Pretests Posttests, Primary Education, Prompting, Tables (Data), Time Perspective
University Microfilm International, Dissertation Copies, P.O. Box 1764, Ann Arbor, MI 48106 (Order No. 75-05657; Xerographic copy, $18.00; Microfilm copy, $9.00).
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Dissertations/Theses - Doctoral Dissertations
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: Indiana Univ., Bloomington. School of Education.
Note: Ph.D. Dissertation, Indiana University.