ERIC Number: ED207681
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1981-Mar
Reference Count: N/A
"XYZ-PDQ!" The Terms and Effects of Children's Challenges.
Walton, Marsha D.; Giddens, Melanie A.
Narrative observations were made of kindergarten through fourth grade students' challenges of their peers' inappropriate behavior and of the responses made to the challenges. Approximately 90 hours of observation in 10 classrooms yielded 728 occasions in which an interchange began with one child challenging another. Three types of responses to challenges (i.e., Remedy, Defiance, Other) were observed. The first and second most frequent responses were Remedy and Defiance, respectively. Challenges were (1) rated according to how explicitly they communicated inappropriateness and responsibility, and (2) divided into four types, according to the terms in which they were issued (i.e., most challenges were stated in terms of the challenged "misstep" or in terms of the appropriate behavior desired). Analyses revealed that both challenge type and challenge explicitness influenced the type of response observed in the interchange. Remedies were much more likely and defiance much less likely when the challenge was stated in terms of both the misbehavior and the desired behavior. Generally, remedies were most likely to occur when challenges were more explicit and defiance was more likely when challenges were less explicit. Boys showed a small but significant tendency to challenge more explicitly than girls, but the challenges of girls were more likely to be responded to with remedies. Additional results and implications of the findings are discussed. (Author/RH)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A