ERIC Number: ED207323
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1980-Sep
Strategies Used by Native Speakers in Native-Non-Native Conversations.
Carty, Maria A.
Discourse analysis has provided a methodology for the study of conversational interactions between language learner and native speaker. This study examines the verbal and nonverbal strategies that native speakers use when communicating with second language learners in natural, non-academic, "survival type" settings. The areas discussed include: (1) what strategies are used, (2) which are the most common, and (3) which are the most effective. Communicative interactions of native and non-native English speakers were observed and recorded in spontaneous naturally-occurring and non-teaching environments. Results indicate that native speakers utilized a wide range of strategies whenever communicative breakdowns occurred. These strategies fell into three categories--syntactic, non-verbal, and translation--and functioned to establish discourse, verify discourse, and to correct ungrammatical or mispronounced speech. "Foreigner talk" was rarely used in the interactions and translation was typically used only when other attempts at communication had failed. Nonverbal strategies such as gestures and the use of writing and drawing proved beneficial for reinforcing verbalizations when establishing or verifying discourse. Comparisons are made between classroom instruction/correction of non-native speakers and natural setting interaction between native and non-native speakers. (JK)
Descriptors: Classroom Techniques, Context Clues, Cultural Influences, Discourse Analysis, Educational Strategies, English (Second Language), Error Patterns, Language Proficiency, Language Styles, Language Usage, Morphology (Languages), Native Speakers, Non English Speaking, Nonverbal Communication, Second Language Learning, Semantics, Sociolinguistics, Speech Skills, Syntax, Teaching Methods, Translation
Publication Type: Dissertations/Theses - Masters Theses; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: M.A. Thesis, Northeastern University.