ERIC Number: ED206994
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1979
Cross-Cultural Sex Differences: Implications for Education.
Breeding, J.; And Others
Fundamental issues about human nature, such as the origin of sex differences, can only be answered through cross-cultural investigations. Children and adolescents (N=5400) in eight countries (Brazil, England, Italy, Mexico, Yugoslavia, West Germany, and the United States) were studied to determine aptitude, achievement, and several coping and motivational variables. Data included scores from the Raven Progressive Matrices, reading and math achievement scores, and grade point average; educational and occupational aspirations were also assessed, along with coping behaviors. Analyses of variance were conducted to examine sex differences on all the variables. Findings indicated no sex-based differences in aptitude. In general, few, relatively inconsistent sex differences were found in coping skills. Findings related to "view of life" were inconsistent with regard to self-concept and locus of control, although boys in four countries had more positive self-concepts. Boys almost always had higher aspirations than girls on occupational status and educational attainment; however, in Yugoslavia, girls and boys had equal aspirations for educational attainment and occupational status. The results suggest that culture is more important than sex in determining school success and casts doubt on the existence of many universal sex differences. (Author/RC)
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: Texas Univ., Austin. Research and Development Center for Teacher Education.