ERIC Number: ED206377
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1981
Curiosity and Self-Directed Learning: The Role of Motivation in Education.
Deci, Edward L.; Ryan, Richard M.
Theoretical propositions and research findings concerning children's motivation to learn are discussed and implications for early childhood education are indicated. The discussion begins by defining and illustrating the motivational states of intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation. Problems of structuring interaction between teachers and students to promote intrinsically motivated learning are considered. Next, lines of research revealing the human need to understand reward contingencies as well as research indicating factors (such as extrinsic rewards, externally imposed controls, and negative feedback) that diminish intrinsic motivation are reviewed. Factors such as choice and positive competence feedback that tend to foster intrinsic motivation are also discussed. Special emphasis is subsequently given to additional studies revealing (1) effect of rewards and communications on intrinsic motivation to be dependent on whether they are interpreted by recipients as primarily informational or controlling, and (2) differences in achievement and motivation between active and passive learners. In conclusion, problems such as the work conditions in schools that undermine teacher's intrinsic motivation and the curriculum standardized for accountability associated with creating classroom programs characterized by intrinsic motivation, informational contingencies, and autonomous learning are pointed out. (Author/RH)
Descriptors: Classroom Environment, Contingency Management, Early Childhood Education, Feedback, Literature Reviews, Rewards, Student Motivation, Student Teacher Relationship, Teacher Motivation
Ablex Publishing Corporation, 355 Chestnut Street, Norwood, NJ 07648 (Contact publisher for price).
Publication Type: Opinion Papers; ERIC Publications
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: National Inst. of Education (ED), Washington, DC.; National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, IL.
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A