ERIC Number: ED206046
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1980
Learning as a Function of Time.
Fredrick, Wayne C.; Walberg, Herbert J.
To examine the relationship between time and in-school learning, the authors review a number of empirical and theoretical studies covering all educational levels. They discuss the methods and interpretations of the empirical studies, the effects of time on learning outcomes and of other variables on time-on-task, and the incidence of diminishing returns to learning from added school or study time. Four methods of measuring time are identified, including years of schooling, days of instruction at school, hours of classes during the day, and minutes of study during class. The authors summarize the effects of these types of time on academic achievement, knowledge, IQ, language and reading level, failure rate, adjustment to school, and attitudes toward education, schoolwork, teaching, religion, and modern life. They also examine two theoretical models relating time to learning: the acceleration model, which allows time to vary until the task is mastered, and the enrichment model, which holds time constant while allowing the amount of learning to vary. From the studies reviewed, the authors conclude that time is a modest predictor of student learning. (RW)
Publication Type: Information Analyses
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: National Inst. of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: Illinois Univ., Chicago. Chicago Circle Campus.
Note: Not available in paper copy due to broken print of original document. This document is Part J of a compilation entitled "Generalized Theory of Design and Analysis of Educational-Effectiveness Research." For related documents, see EA 013 759-761, EA 013 763-767, ED 168 714, ED 185 064, and EJ 210 984.