ERIC Number: ED203750
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1981-Mar
Reference Count: N/A
Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Surveys of Dental Student Values: Limitations of Cross-Sectional Design.
Sakumura, Joseph S.
Surveys of dental student values are described that were designed to assess value ratings by four dental classes in 1976, annual value ratings of a freshman class as they progressed through their four year program, and the usefulness of the cross-sectional design versus the longitudinal design. Each of the two surveys, which were conducted by the University of Missouri-Kansas City, involved approximately 500 students primarily from the midwestern United States. Using Rokeach's (1967) Value Survey, significant rating differences were found in eight of 36 values tested among the four classes. Five significant terminal values differences among the four classes were: "a comfortable life,""a world at peace,""equality,""pleasure," and "wisdom." Three significant instrumental value results were being: "independent,""helpful," and "obedient." A positive trend appeared between advanced class level and being independent, and negative trends between advanced class level and being helpful and obedient. There were also positive trends between advanced class level and a comfortable life and pleasure; whereas reverse trends emerged between advanced class level. The longitudinal analysis detected four significant, two terminal and two instrumental rating differences. As freshmen advanced in class status, significant rating differences were found for: a comfortable life, pleasure, and being helpful and obedient. The findings indicate that homogeneity of values was found among the four classes (cross-sectional analysis); whereas homogeneity as well as stability of values was found from the longitudinal study. Reasons why the longitudinal data are considered more valid and reliable to the cross-sectional results are examined. A bibliography is included. (SW)
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: Missouri Univ., Kansas City.