ERIC Number: ED200901
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1980-Apr
Productivity of Instructional Time and Resources in School Reading Programs.
Kidder, Steven J.; And Others
Based on a population of 2,031 second and fifth grade students, ten classroom situations were studied for their relative effects on reading achievement. The relative merits of criterion versus norm-referenced tests also were examined. Data came from teacher questionnaires and student scores on multiple choice cloze tests (the criterion-referenced tests) and various norm-referenced tests. Specific conclusions were as follows: (1) One-to-one instruction by the teacher had a weak positive effect on student achievement, and was not considered cost-effective. (2) Specialist instruction, appropriately allocated to low ability students in both grades, seemed to have less effect on student reading achievement than would be expected from the amount of time allocated, especially in the second grade. (3) Although instruction from aides outside the classroom seemed to be in reasonable amounts for low ability students in both grades, the analyses did not indicate that this aide time was effective in increasing reading achievement. (4) In general, instruction carried on in large groups or entire classes was not overly effective. (5) Small group instruction by the teacher was more effective than other types of instruction, while the relatively large amounts of time devoted to independent small group work proved less favorable in promoting student achievement. (6) The findings regarding criterion versus norm-referenced tests were not clear. (RL)
Descriptors: Comparative Analysis, Criterion Referenced Tests, Elementary Education, Grade 2, Grade 5, Individualized Instruction, Instructional Design, Instructional Improvement, Large Group Instruction, Norm Referenced Tests, Reading Achievement, Reading Research, Small Group Instruction, Teacher Effectiveness, Teaching Methods
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: New York State Education Dept., Albany.