ERIC Number: ED200377
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1981-Feb
Some Important Considerations in the Development of a Camping Program for Special Education Audiences.
Groves, D. L.; Merski, J. E.
Two methods were used to identify important operational constraints and their potential impact on special education camps: a review of current literature and programs using content analysis and the development of day and resident camping experiences. In the content analysis, a process of evolution through trial and error was seen as leading to better camping programs for special audiences. Nine operational constraints were isolated as being important. Outcomes of these were identified as self-development, skill acquisition and development, social skill development, and motivational stimulation. Case studies, based on day and resident experiences for mentally retarded audiences, were undertaken to test the constraints in relation to outcomes identified. Stimulation of the senses through tangible qualities of the environment, a low ratio between teaching and counseling staff and participants, and a program before and after the camping experience were indicated as the most important operational constraints in the development of a quality curriculum. The three main concerns in program development were identified as a multi-dimensional tool for assessment, an efficient method of implementation, and an effective instrument for evaluation. A cooperative communication network was described as a major factor in controlling any one of the three. (JD)
Descriptors: Adolescents, Adults, Behavior Modification, Children, Daily Living Skills, Day Camp Programs, Educational Needs, Exceptional Persons, Nontraditional Education, Normalization (Handicapped), Organizational Communication, Outdoor Education, Program Effectiveness, Program Evaluation, Resident Camp Programs, Self Care Skills, Special Education
Publication Type: Reports - Descriptive; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southern Association of Agricultural Scientists, Rural Sociology Section (Atlanta, GA, February 1981).