ERIC Number: ED199289
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1981-Apr
The Place of Values in Needs Assessment.
Lincoln, Yvonna S.; Guba, Egon G.
It is assumed that the delineation of values is critical to proper needs assessments. "Need" is defined as a requisite or desideratum generated as a discrepancy between a target state (T) and an actual state (A), if and only if the presence of the conditions defined by T can be shown significantly to harm, indispose, or constrain a subject (S). There are at least five points at which value judgments impinge upon needs determination. They are: (1) the identification of the domain of T; (2) the designation of the particular T to be utilized in determining the discrepancy between T and A; (3) the designation of the difference between T and A that will be regarded as significant; (4) the determination of what shall constitute a "benefit" under the first of two tests for need candidates; and (5) the determination of what shall constitue an "unsatisfactory" state under the second of two tests for need cadidates. The process of needs assessment includes: (1) interfacing with stakeholding audiences; (2) carrying out empirical inquiries; (3) identification of need candidates; and (4) testing the need candidates. Finally the interplay of facts and values in projecting responses to needs is discussed. (RL)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers; Opinion Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (65th, Los Angeles, CA, April 13-17, 1981).