ERIC Number: ED199286
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1981-Feb
The Impact of Societal Biases on Research Methods.
Campbell, Patricia B.
The effects of racism and sexism can be seen in the various elements of research methods including the selection of topics, design, sampling, measurement, and the generation of conclusions. In selecting topics, potential sources of bias such as funding sources and publishing patterns are covered. How knowledge of appropriate literature, selection of independent variables, and control of sources of invalidity can be sources of bias in design are examined. The effects of these sources in terms of incomplete testing for race or sex similarities and differences, use of biased independent variables, and incomplete blocking or control of confounding variables are discussed. Bias and sampling are discussed covering the sources of bias (composition and selections of samples, the effects of single sex or race samples, organizations, use of different race or sex samples for different content areas), and the results of that bias. The section on bias and measurement investigates the effect of bias on observation, aptitude and achievement tests, vocational tests, and affective tests. The section on bias and the generation of conclusions examines the way that bias can encourage overgeneralization, incorrect attributions of causality, and conclusions based on expectations rather than on data. (Author/RL)
Publication Type: Information Analyses
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: National Inst. of Education (ED), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: N/A