ERIC Number: ED198145
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1980-Mar
Reference Count: 0
Methods of Assessing Bias and Fairness in Tests.
Merz, William R.
Several methods of assessing test item bias are described, and the concept of fair use of tests is examined. A test item is biased if individuals of equal ability have different probabilities of attaining the item correct. The following seven general procedures used to examine test items for bias are summarized and discussed: (1) analysis of variance (ANOVA); (2) transformed item difficulties (TID); (3) item-total score correlations (I-TC); (4) factor analysis (FACTOR); (5) chi-square (CHI); (6) item characteristic curve approaches (ICC); and (7) response fail analysis (RFA). During the test construction phase it is recommended that either the TID, CHI, or three parameter ICC method be employed. Test fairness is defined as the equitable use of test scores in rendering judgments about individuals. Eight methods which use the prediction-regression approach to establish fair test use are discussed. All of these methods demand an outside criterion of success which must be designated and data about performance on that criterion must be collected. A second approach to establish fair test use, which is included in the Equal Employment Opportunity Guidelines and which does not require an outside criterion, is a procedure called the 80 percent rule. (RL)
Publication Type: Reports - Descriptive; Guides - Non-Classroom
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: Applied Research Consultants, Sacramento, CA.