ERIC Number: ED195003
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1979-Mar
Educational and Economic Effects of Promotion and Repetition Practices. Staff Working Paper No. 319.
Haddad, Wadi D.
The education dollar is poorly spent when students drop out of school, and even more poorly spent when students repeat grades. A review of the research on student promotion and grade repetition discloses two basic philosophies underpinning practices in this area. Those arguing for grade repetition assume that academic factors determine success and failure, that tests measuring student achievement are reliable, that some skills are best taught at particular levels, and that students are emotionally better off if they are placed with children at similar developmental levels. The research, however, supports those arguing for automatic promotion. The determinants of achievement are not primarily academic, nor are all desirable educational outcomes cognitive or objectively measurable. Grade retention actually decreases achievement and can be devastating to students' self-concepts, while promotion aids the total development of the child in both cognitive and affective areas. The real issue is prevention of failure, suggesting that a nongraded curriculum, ability grouping, and a new role for educational measurement should be aspects of a program that could solve both the educational and the economic problems associated with the division of schools into year-long grades. A bibliography of 96 relevant items accompanies this report. (Author/PGD)
Publication Type: Information Analyses; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: World Bank, Washington, DC.