ERIC Number: ED189681
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1980
Reference Count: 0
Grade Retention and Social Promotion. ACSA School Management Digest, Series 1, No. 20.
Examination of the literature reveals that all reviews of research comparing grade retention policies with social promotion policies favor social promotion. Grade retention fails to ensure greater achievement, either by retained students or their classmates, and frequently leads to long-term damage in the areas of personal and social adjustment. The ideal promotion policy appears to involve an individualized, continuous progress curriculum. Short of the ideal, the best policy calls for social promotion as the rule and permits occasional retention when it is in the child's best interest. Some research suggests that retention can benefit immature students, especially in the very early grades. When schools are in doubt, they should promote rather than retain. Several studies have found that the ready availability of retention can encourage discrimination on racial, sexual, and socioeconomic grounds. Misuse of retention can be discouraged through involvement of parents, teachers, and specialists in the decision-making process. This document cites several studies of retention and promotion, describes a few policies currently in use, and provides a substantial bibliography. (Author/PGD)
Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Continuous Progress Plan, Elementary Secondary Education, Flexible Progression, Grade Repetition, Literature Reviews, Social Discrimination, Student Motivation, Student Placement, Student Promotion
Association of California School Administrators, 1575 Old Bayshore Hwy., Burlingame, CA 94010 ($3.75 nonmembers; $2.75 members)
Publication Type: ERIC Publications
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: National Inst. of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: Association of California School Administrators.; ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR.