ERIC Number: ED189183
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1980-Apr
Reference Count: N/A
Individual Differences Between Criterion-Referenced Tests. Working Paper #39 of the Program in Educational Research.
Nitko, Anthony J.
A framework, or classification scheme, is provided for displaying the spectrum of criterion-referenced tests. This framework illustrates that no single type of test can be identified as the absolute prototype criterion-referenced test. It is shown that over the past 115 years criterion-referenced testing has grown to be a many-faceted concept, its multitude of specific instances differing qualitatively from each other. A definition is provided for a criterion-referenced test as one that is deliberately constructed to yield measurements that are directly interpretable in terms of specified performance standards. Three broad categories are identified (well-defined domains, ill-defined domains, or those that are basically undefined), and the relationships are clarified. The classification scheme for distinguishing the varieties of these tests is presented in tabular form according to the basis for test development. Other tables give examples of criterion-referenced tests, and summarize additional breakdown of categories of tests which reference scores to unordered domains. Essentially, this framework is seen as a first step toward clarity of communication among professionals and toward improved test development. (Author/GSK)
Descriptors: Classification, Criterion Referenced Tests, Test Construction, Test Validity, Testing Problems
Educational Research Department, 5C03 Forbes Quadrangle, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 ($.60)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers; Reference Materials - Vocabularies/Classifications
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: Pittsburgh Univ., PA. School of Education.