ERIC Number: ED189121
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1980-Apr
Reference Count: 0
Employing Intact and Embedded Headings to Facilitate Long-Term Retention of Text.
Holley, Charles D.; And Others
The usefulness of intact (topic outline format) and embedded (positioned within text) headings as processing aids to facilitate recall was examined, using a 2,500-word passage from introductory science textbooks. Prior studies were subject to criticisms which this study attempted to correct, specifically: (1) use of non-optimal dependent measures; (2) use of short, artificial prose; (3) emphasis on immediate testing; (4) lack of training and practice on the use of headings as processing aids; and (5) failure to examine intact and embedded headings presented in combination. Results indicated no advantage to training, possibly because of the amount of training and time available to students for integrating training with their existing study habits. Compared to a text-without-headings group, however, students provided with intact and embedded headings had superior recall. The text-with-headings group recalled 11 percent more information at immediate testing, and 44 percent more information at five-day delayed testing than their counterparts. Results suggest that headings are more useful for retreival than for comprehension. It is concluded that textbooks should include headings and students should use them extensively as study aids. (The post experiment questionnaire on student study habits is appended). (Author/CP)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (64th, Boston, MA, April 7-11, 1980).