ERIC Number: ED187152
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1979
Reference Count: 0
Communicative Approaches to Second Language Teaching and Testing. Review and Evaluation Bulletins, Volume 1, Number 5.
Canale, Michael; Swain, Merrill
Currently accepted principles of communicative approaches to second language pedagogy are examined to determine the extent to which they are grounded in theories of language, psycholinguistics, sociolinguistics, and other language-related disciplines. The discussion of communicative approaches distinguishes the notions of communicative competence and communicative performance. Various theories of communicative competence are examined, and the advantages and disadvantages of a communicative approach for general second language programs are discussed. A theoretical framework for communicative competence is proposed, and its implications for second language teaching and testing are considered. The proposed framework of communicative competence includes three main competencies: grammatical competence, sociolinguistic competence, and strategic competence. Grammatical competence includes knowledge of lexical items and of rules of morphology, syntax, sentence-grammar semantics, and phonology. Sociolinguistic competence is made up of sociocultural rules of use and rules of discourse. Strategic competence is made up of verbal and nonverbal communication strategies. Some suggestions for research are also suggested. (SW)
Descriptors: Communicative Competence (Languages), Grammar, Language Research, Linguistic Theory, Nonverbal Communication, Second Language Instruction, Sociolinguistics, Testing, Verbal Communication
Ontario Government Bookstore, 880 Bay Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M7A 1L2
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Ontario Dept. of Education, Toronto.
Authoring Institution: Ontario Inst. for Studies in Education, Toronto.