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ERIC Number: ED187118
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1978
Pages: 9
Abstractor: N/A
Strategies of Second-Language Communication.
Palmberg, Rolf
CIEFL Bulletin, v14 n2 p1-8 l978
The use of the term "strategy" in second language communication is discussed, and a typology of communication strategies is presented. Communication strategies are those systematic devices a second language learner uses in attempting to express precise meaning in the target language. Definitions of learning strategies and communication strategies found in the literature in this field are presented. It is suggested that a second language learner, in theory, adopts either of two principal communication strategies. The learner may avoid difficult words or grammatical constructions by producing something different than was intended or may omit the difficult words. This has been called a "risk-avoiding" strategy. In the opposite case, when the learner adopts a "risk-taking" strategy, he uses all linguistic resources to express his intended meaning, often at the risk of failing to achieve his communicative end. These resources include paraphrasing, invention of new words, guessing, and borrowing from other languages. A typology of communication strategies which is mainly a systematization of the typologies presented in Varadi (1973), TC & D (1976), and the Tarone (1977) is presented. The six basic communication strategies are the following: avoidance, appeal for assistance, admission of ignorance, paraphrase, transfer, and mime. Examples are included.(SW)
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Opinion Papers
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: Central Inst. of English and Foreign Languages, Hyderbad (India).