ERIC Number: ED186317
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1980-Mar-19
Reference Count: 0
Noncoercive Inducements in International Conflicts.
This paper examines noncoercion in international struggles, reviews instances in which positive inducements were combined with or used instead of coercion, and analyzes conditions affecting the utilization and effectiveness of noncoercive means in conducting international relations. Coercion refers to actual and threatened violent and nonviolent negative sanctions including use of military force, threat of bombings, and economic boycotts. Noncoercion is interpreted to include persuasion (one party's efforts to convince an adversary to accede to its requests) and reward (positive sanctions and/or offers to the adversary of something it values and accepts in anticipation of a reciprocating concession). Examples of noncoercion in international struggles include negotiations between Israel and Egypt following President Sadat's visit to Jerusalem in 1977, the Nuclear Test Ban Agreement in 1963, and withdrawal of the Soviets from Austria in 1958. These instances were all part of larger conflicts beset with escalations, de-escalations, violence, negotiated agreements, and continuing tensions. The conclusion is that noncoercive means will be more effective in solving international struggles if all adversaries act on the assumption that even the most bitter enemies have some common interests, coercive alternatives are too costly, noncoercive inducements must be attractive and realistic, and the motives, interests and perceptions of all negotiators are of paramount importance. (Author/DB)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers; Opinion Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at Annual Meeting of the International Studies Association (Los Angeles, CA, March 19, 1980).