ERIC Number: ED185624
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1980-Apr
Reference Count: 0
The Effect of Perceived Similarity/Dissimilarity on Confirmation/Disconfirmation Behaviors: Reciprocity or Compensation?
Lifshitz, Paltiel; Shulman, Gary M.
In an experiment studying the relationship between reciprocity and compensation in dyadic communication, 96 male college students were videotaped during hypothetical problem solving situations. An attitude scale was used to manipulate subjects' impressions of mutual similarity. Time was used to test development in the dependent variables confirmation, disconfirmation, and looking/mutual gaze behaviors. The results showed that verbal confirmation and disconfirmation were reciprocal; that verbal confirmation and gaze were slightly but positively and significantly related; and that reciprocity (on verbal confirmation) and compensation (on gaze) could be concurrent. The findings also revealed that dyads with similar attitudes did not confirm more than dyads with dissimilar attitudes; conversely, dyads with dissimilar attitudes did not disconfirm more than dyads with similar attitudes. Subject behavior in the dissimilar attitudes condition showed significantly more mutual gaze. In contrast with previous studies, gaze seemed to communicate challenge rather than liking. It was suggested that compensation be seen as agency and reciprocity as communion. (RL)
Descriptors: Attitudes, College Students, Communication Research, Congruence (Psychology), Eye Fixations, Eye Movements, Feedback, Interaction Process Analysis, Interpersonal Attraction, Interpersonal Relationship, Males, Personal Space, Problem Solving, Reinforcement, Speech Communication, Speech Habits
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Eastern Communication Association (Ocean City, MD, April 24-26, 1980).