ERIC Number: ED182642
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1979
Understanding Pygmalion: The Social Psychology of Self-Fulfilling Classroom Expectations.
Cooper, Harris M.; And Others
Extensive research has been conducted examining the effects of teacher expectations on student performance, revealing reasonably consistent patterns of differential behavior by teachers toward high and low expectation students. Few theories which integrate isolated research findings into a causal sequence have emerged, however. One such model outlines the process through which teacher expectations may sustain student performance by proposing that teachers more frequently use negative affectively valenced feedback to low expectation students as a mechanism for interaction control, while high expectation students more frequently receive feedback based on their effort expenditure. These different evaluation contingencies lead to a lesser belief on the part of lows than highs that effort will influence academic outcomes. As with learned helplessness effects, differences in effort-outcome covariation perceptions may lead to less persistence and more failure on the part of lows than highs, thus sustaining poor performance. Support for several aspects of the model comes from varying sources, including this first attempt to test the entire hypothesized sequence within the same system of naturally-occurring teacher-student relations. (Author)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: Missouri Univ., Columbia. Center for Research in Social Behavior.
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association (87th, New York, NY, September 1-5, 1979)