ERIC Number: ED182544
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1980-Jan
Instructional Concepts for Occupational Education. Special Interest Paper. An Occasional Publication for Selected Audiences, No. 20.
West, Leonard J.
Teachers and teacher educators seem to be little aware of some major concepts about instruction that provide important insights into the central requirements for learning. A common misconception is that motivation has to do with wanting or desiring. It is instead attention to stimuli that is influenced by two powerful agents--(1) suspense, discovery, curiosity and (2) reinforcement. Introduction of new learning by the arousal and subsequent relief of curiosity is one important motivational tactic. Reinforcement for correct responses or prompt knowledge of results leads to increased student success at the task, which is the most powerful motivator for learning. Student errors can either be corrected immediately to maximize student success or planned by the instructor to result in learner annoyance or perplexity to lead him into the desired responses. Guidance or prompting should be limited to early stages of learning; confirmation of unprompted responses should characterize the vast bulk of instruction. Student behavior should be shaped through a series of successive approximations to the eventaul terminal behavior by specifying in measureable terms the standard of acceptability at each stage of learning. Explicit generalization of discrimination training, as applicable, is recommended for presenting the confusable elements present in every learning task. (YLB)
Descriptors: Achievement, Behavior Change, Behavioral Objectives, Career Education, Curiosity, Discovery Learning, Discovery Processes, Discrimination Learning, Generalization, Learning Motivation, Learning Processes, Learning Theories, Prompting, Reinforcement, Stimuli, Student Behavior, Student Motivation, Success, Teaching Methods
Publication Type: Information Analyses; Opinion Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of Occupational and Continuing Education.; City Univ. of New York, NY. Inst. for Research and Development in Occupational Education.; City Univ. of New York, NY. Center for Advanced Study in Education.