ERIC Number: ED182199
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1979
Universalizing Education: Linking Formal and Non-formal Programmes. Technical Working Group Meeting (Bangkok, Thailand, October 2-14, 1978).
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.
Proceedings of a conference on improving and universalizing education in 11 Asian countries are reported. Participating countries included Afghanistan, India, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. It was found that the concept of universal education varies from country to country. Generally, however, goals include offering instruction in the national language at lower levels of education, correcting existing disparities in access to education, and creating alternative modes to education. Participants discussed structures to link formal and nonformal educational activities: area vocational centers, school equivalency programs, community secondary schools, adult education centers, correspondence courses, and skills training for students to earn while learning. Problems encountered in executing programs involve shortage of funding, training of personnel, inadequate curriculum materials, and difficulty in integrating mass media programs with school programs. Recommendations by participants for improving current practices include: developing methods for training manpower resources needed for nonformal education; establishing projects to promote the status of nonformal education; using religious institutions, their staff, parents, and the community in educating children; and establishing linkages between general and vocational education programs. A list of participants is included. (KC)
Descriptors: Access to Education, Comparative Education, Developing Nations, Educational Objectives, Educational Problems, Educational Programs, Elementary Secondary Education, Equal Education, Foreign Countries, Non Western Civilization, Nonformal Education, Nontraditional Education, Postsecondary Education
Publication Type: Reports - Descriptive; Collected Works - Proceedings
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.