ERIC Number: ED181428
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1980-Jan
Reference Count: N/A
Inducing Flexible Thinking: The Problem of Access. Technical Report No. 156.
Brown, Ann L.; Campione, Joseph C.
This report first demonstrates that the concept of accessibility is central to many theories of psychology from quite disparate domains and notes that a distinction of multiple and reflective access also seems to be part of many theories. It then suggests that no theory of intelligence can be complete unless provision is made for the operation of second-order knowledge, that is, knowledge about what we know (reflective access) and flexible use of the routines available to the system (multiple access). The second part of the paper considers the evidence that diagnosis or retarded and learning disabled children's learning problems based on process theories are fundamentally diagnoses of restricted access. It argues that training studies, whether successful or not at inducing transfer, provide rich support for the hypothesis that the slow learning child has peculiar difficulty with the flexible use of knowledge. The final section of the paper discusses the implications of this position for the design of training programs aimed at alleviating the problem of accessibility. The developing technology available for programing transfer of training and the importance of interpersonal settings--particularly mother/child interactions and socratic tutoring--as cognitive support systems for learning are also outlined. (Author/FL)
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Information Analyses
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.; National Inst. of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: Illinois Univ., Urbana. Center for the Study of Reading.; Bolt, Beranek and Newman, Inc., Cambridge, MA.